Evaluation of “Sacred Rhetoric” by RL Dabney - by C. Matthew McMahon

This Should be Required Reading for Every Minister

Dabney’s work on Sacred Rhetoric (republished as Evangelical Eloquence) is a study or “reflection and teaching” throughout Dabney’s career of, at the time, 20 years.[1] The work is comprised of 24 lectures, which were given to students at Union Theological Seminary in Dabney’s day. My intention is simply to draw out of the work the best portions and teachings that Dabney gave on the subject, whittling his work down to the absolute essential points and arguments.

Lecture 1: Introductory

Sacred Rhetoric is an art. Art is but the rational adjustment of means to an end.[2] Such rhetoric in light of preaching emulates the Apostle Paul, as Dabney uses him as a model. He says, “Let us make our sacred rhetoric just his, so far as it was primarily taught him by the Holy Spirit, and taught him next by his high culture and pure devotion.” Paul, then, was a one who prepared well and taught Timothy to prepare well in 1 Timothy 4:13-15. “It is, surely, sufficient proof that the apostle Paul did not understand preparation to be unlawful, that we find him commanding Timothy, “to give attendance to reading, to exhortation, to doctrine, to meditate upon these things, and give himself wholly to them, that his profiting might appear unto all.”[3] Dabney exhorts that students of the ministry must prepare for the public vocation of preaching the gospel, and as its proclamation from the pulpit is to be their prominent task. All other studies are ancillary to this which they undertake.[4]

Dabney then gives a history of preaching. Enoch was a preacher, “Enoch, the seventh from Adam, prophesied of the ungodly,” (Jude 1:14). Noah was, “a preacher of righteousness,” (2 Peter 2:5). In the Hebrew commonwealth there are three orders of official preachers, besides the patriarchal heads of households. On these a constant oral instruction of children was enjoined (Deut. 6:7). The prophets were preachers of revealed truth. We read of such discourses from Moses, Aaron, (who was both prophet and priest), Isaiah, Elijah, Elisha, Jonah, Jeremiah and the prophets of the restoration. Ezekiel aptly illustrates the responsibilities of his office by that of the “watchman set to proclaim the coming of an enemy,” (Ezekiel 33).[5] The second order of preachers was the priests. It is clear that his stated duties were not only sacrificial but also pastoral.[6] The priests and Levites occupied themselves in teaching and preaching. This is intimated in the complaint of Azariah the son of Obed, in the reign of Asa, against their delinquency, “Now for a long season Israel hath been without the true God, and without a teaching priest,”[7] etc. It is more expressly declared by Malachi 2:7, “For the priests’ should keep knowledge, and they should seek the law at his mouth, for he is the messenger of the Lord of hosts.” One may also consider the theocratic kings included preaching among their legitimate functions.[8] One of Solomon’s titles was “preacher,” “The words of the Preacher, the son of David, king in Jerusalem,” (Eccl. 1:1). Dabney says, “But it was under Ezra that preaching assumed, by divine appointment, more nearly its modern place as a constant part of worship, and also its modern character as an exposition of the written Scriptures.”[9] Christ and the apostles were constant preachers of the gospel. They preached everywhere; in the temple-courts, in private houses, in the streets and highways, beside the sea, on the mountains, etc.[10] “It pleased God by the foolishness of preaching to save them that believe,” (1 Cor. 1:21). And it is very plain from the Acts and Epistles, in both their preceptive and narrative parts, that this continued to be a regular part of the public service of all the Christian assemblies.[11]

Throughout church history preachers held themselves free from the rules of the limitation of time in preaching. In Augustine’s writings some of his sermons were six minutes, and some of them were sixty minutes. Preachers said what God wanted them to say and then stopped.[12] In the Dark Ages there was a decline in preaching, where during the Reformation there was an “emphatic revival of gospel preaching.”[13] Dabney says, “Whenever the pulpit is evangelical, the piety of the people is in some degree healthy; a perversion of the pulpit is surely followed by spiritual apostasy in the Church.”[14]

Lecture 2: The Preacher’s Commission

Dabney states, “Sacred rhetoric is one branch of eloquence.”[15] Eloquence deals with the hearer’s soul through all its powers, but it also operates through all the powers of the speaker’s soul.[16] Generally, eloquence is defined as the emission of the soul’s energy through speech. The sermon, then, “is a peculiar species of eloquence.”[17] But sacred rhetoric concerns the Bible and the divine nature of eloquence on sermonizing. If a sermon urges the hearer merely with excellent reasons and inducements, natural, ethical, social, legal, political, self-interested, philanthropic, if it does not end by bringing their wills under the direct grasp of a, “thus saith the Lord,” it is not a sermon; it has degenerated into a speech.[18] So, Dabney says, “The nature of the preacher’s work is determined by the word employed to describe it by the Holy Ghost. The preacher is a herald; his work is heralding the King’s message.”[19] He is an intelligent medium of communication and he is expected to deliver and explain his Master’s mind, that the other party shall receive not only the mechanical sounds, but the true meaning of the message.[20] The preacher’s task may be correctly explained as that of (instrumentally) forming the image of Christ upon the souls of men.[21] This means it is the preacher’s business is to take what is given him in the Scriptures, as it is given to him, and to endeavor to imprint it on the souls of men.

If the messenger is to bring to the people the King’s mind, he must be well prepared for the task if sacred rhetoric and the prime qualification of the sacred orator is sincere, which is eminent piety. The appropriate mission of the minister is to preach the gospel for the salvation of souls.[22] How can he accomplish this without a sincere devotion to God? Preaching is not merely an exercise in social reform.[23] Rather, in the pulpit, the preacher is the ambassador of Christ to the people.[24]

Lecture 3: Distribution of Subjects

Rhetoric is also to be considered as the art of persuasion.[25] Its usual distribution has been into the three parts of Invention, Disposition, and Elocution.[26] These are learned and exercised by the minister. No two individuals are the same, so each has his own distinct style within the boundaries of the art of persuasion. Dabney explains Vinet’s understanding of this when he says that the method, the style, the diction, the gesticulation, all must be invented. Vinet does not mean that they may be artificial; but that they must, in order to be appropriate, be discovered and selected by the same exertions of the mind which give the speaker his thoughts.[27]

Sermons, then are classified into different sorts, namely topical and expository, or doctrinal, practical and narrative.[28] All are expository sermons, which is really the only type of biblical sermon that meets Scriptural guidelines, but they have different emphasis. Doctrinal preaching is that which aims to instruct the people methodically in the truths of the Gospel.[29] Doctrinal sermons should be the science of systematic interpretation made popular. Dabney asks, “How shall the heart be reached except through the head?”[30] Many people object that didactic preaching is dry. Dabney says that that if it ever seems to be so, this is the fault of the preacher and not of the truth. If his attempted development of doctrine is confused, illogical, iterative, tedious; if the didactic unfolding of truth is perversely severed from the practical results, he may not be surprised to find that he (not his subject) is dull.[31] No heart can be excited by the Bible that does not in some measure understand the truth preached. In such doctrinal preaching, no truth should be kept back, and the whole bible should be revealed.[32]

A second class of sermon is the practical or ethical. These discuss the duties of the Christian life toward God and toward man. They show their nature, limits, obligations and motives.[33] The Law of God plays an important role in this, demonstrating who man is, and what is required of him.

Lecture 4: The Same Topic Continued

Within the bounds of the practical or ethical sermon, the preacher should never weigh the sermon down or encumber them with secular details, or too much studious information.[34] Study is made of the passage so the preacher may formulate his message, not to show the congregation the study he made.

The third kind of sermon is the historical sermon, or narrative.[35] This is where the preacher uses texts that employ parable, biographies and histories made in the Biblical text.[36] Here, danger occurs to pull something out of the narrative that may not be the intention of the Spirit in the text. In a narrative sermon, the preacher’s first task must be to ascertain faithfully, from the whole context, the precise scope of the Spirit in placing these events in the infallible record. What principles of truth or duty did He here illustrate to the Church? This must be his topic; and nothing else.[37]

There is a fourth kind of sermon which Dabney calls the “occasional sermon.”[38] He classifies anything that is preached at an event which may be a “startling” providence like a funeral, some grave event like a massive flood killing thousands, etc.

In all these sermons there is direct exhortation. Direct exhortation, which is not founded on argument, is meaningless.[39] All sermons have argumentation, or a logical order about them to bring the hearer to a certain intellectual place.

Dabney concludes this lecture, and section with the following, “This review of the three classes of sermons will assist the pastor in cultivating that variety, within scriptural limits, which is so useful to interest and instruct his people. By preaching doctrinally, practically, and historically, with judicious alternations, he will show himself, “a workman that needeth not to be ashamed, rightly dividing the word of truth.”[40]

Lecture 5: The Text

The posture of the preacher is essentially different from that of all other speakers. His only work is to expound and apply to the people an authoritative message from God.[41] The whole authority of his addresses to the conscience depends upon the correspondence evinced between his explanations and inferences and the infallible Word. Therefore, unless sermons are expository, they are not true sermons.[42] In such sermons there are capital texts, which encompass whole sections of Scripture, such as a history, or epitome texts, which capture in a short portion or even phrase, a singular idea.[43] In either case, the expository method (understood as that which explains extended passages of Scripture in course) should be restored to that equal place which it held in the primitive and Reformed Churches, “for, first, this is obviously the only natural and efficient way to do that which is the sole legitimate end of preaching, convey the whole message of God to the people.”[44]  Dabney says, “The scriptural theory of preaching gives us no other conception of the work than the expository.”[45] In these expository sermons sections must be created to correctly set down the meaning of the Spirit in the text, and these are seen in separate propositions about the text.[46] That means a preacher must have the capacity to set these down well, from his exposition. “He who does not preach many expository sermons will seldom become an able and learned interpreter.”[47] The expository method naturally adapts to sustain the interest of common minds, in that it provides them with frequent and easy transitions of the subject matter.[48] It presents divine truth in those aspects and relations in which it was placed by that God who knew what was in man.[49]

Lecture 6: The Text

The text is that passage of Scripture which introduces and contains the sermon, whether it is a single proposition, or even clause of Scripture, or a portion of many verses to be expounded.[50] If the passage is very fruitful, a smaller portion can be taken. If it consists largely of perspicuous narrative, or detail, not requiring explanation, the preacher may dispatch a much longer portion.[51]

The text, 1) should be God’s word,[52] and 2) accepted and discussed only in the very sense which it had in the mind of the Spirit as he uttered it.[53] 3) No passage of Scripture is suitable for a text which does not contain a distinct and important point.[54] 4) The text should be made clear,[55] which means the preacher must be precise.

Lecture 7: Cardinal Requisites of a Sermon

First, the preacher must stick to one’s text.[56] Bible drills, jumping all over the Bible, is not a sermon. There must be unity in the work, and a clear presentation of the point being made.[57] There must be a point to the sermon, and the point must be made exceedingly clear.[58] The sermon must have an evangelical tone, proclaiming the Gospel in mercy and truth. The sermon should be “prevalently evangelical.”[59] This does not mean that is solely a salvation message at every turn, as is common by unskilled preachers who are shallow in their depth of Scriptural information. Evangelical is defined by Dabney as “scriptural.”[60] The sermon is to be filled with unction, (1 John 2:27), or an anointing from God. Passions in the preacher do not constitute unction, but is defined by Vinet as, “the general savor of Christianity, a gravity accompanied by tenderness, a severity tempered with sweetness, a majesty associated with intimacy.” It is gravity and warmth united together.[61]

Lecture 8: Cardinal Requisites of a Sermon Continued

Vinet says movement in a sermon is the royal virtue of style.[62] Movement has two elements, the logical (or didactic) and the emotive.[63] This is appealing to the heart through the head. Sermons fail because they are deficient in point. They either have no valuable and practical truths of cardinal weight, or these are not made to stand out to the apprehension of the hearers. No decided impression can be expected from such addresses. Dabney says, “No lodgment is made in the conscience of the people; they go away with the vague feeling that they have been only listening to a strain of goodish but aimless talk.”[64]

One of the last important attributes of a sermon is order.[65] Dabney says, “Order is the proper arrangement of the parts among themselves; division discriminates the parts. Division, therefore, bears to order the relation of means to ends. We divide in order that we may arrange.”[66] This is exceedingly lacking in today’s preaching style. This quality, according to Vinet, “is the character of a true discourse.”[67] Order is heaven’s first law. Order allows for recollection both in the speaker and the hearer.[68] The mind apprehends beauty in method, and it is noble thing to make the truth beautiful.[69]

Lecture 9: Constituent Members of the Sermon

Right division allows the hearer to remember what is spoken. Division is divided into the Exordium, or introduction, the Exposition, the Proposition, the Main Argument, and the Conclusion.[70] The Exordium is that prefatory matter which precedes the direct business of the discourse. It should give weight to the main subject of the sermon, explaining the text, and should conclude with only one leading thought.[71] This should be short relative to the whole sermon, and should explain the text in its context and point.[72]

Lecture 10: Constituent Members of the Sermon Continued

Unless an explication of the text has composed the exordium this will be the second constituent member of the regular sermon. The explication of the passage on which you preach should be plain and convincing. Avoid especially in this exercise every trait of pedantry and of literary coxcombry. Dabney says, “You should not readily choose a text which requires a learned and labored exegesis to evince its meaning, but should rather resort to some plainer declaration of the same truth in another part of the Scriptures.”[73] The explication will usually demand the best exertion of the preacher’s skill, because it is necessary that it is brief.[74] Dabney gives an example of this which I quote in full:

Let us suppose that the text is a single verse, 1 John 3:3, “And every man that hath this hope in him purifieth himself, even as he is pure.” After the explication, which by the help of the context, will plainly and convincingly show that the “hope” intended is that of redemption through Christ, that the “purifying” is that of spiritual sanctification, and that the person who is its pattern is the Redeemer, you may then deduce your topic either as a subject of didactic and illustrative remarks, “The sanctifying effect of the true believer’s hope,” or as a proposition to be demonstrated, “The believer’s hope sanctifies all who are entitled to it.” Let us suppose that the sermon discusses a longer passage of Scripture in which a kindred truth is taught. Titus 2:9 to chapter 3:8. After such preliminary explanation of the scope and language as introduces the hearer to the leading idea of the passage, this may be deduced either as a subject, “The connection of the faith and the life,” which will then be exemplified by a detailed examination of the verses; or it may be stated as a proposition, “The true believer will be careful to maintain good works,” which will then be proved by the arguments the apostle furnishes, and will be applied to his instances.[75]

Lecture 11: Constituent Members of the Sermon Continued

An extended part of the sermon is the argument.[76] This surrounds the reasons the propositions should be believed and may after have inferences and corollaries to explain it.[77] Finally comes the practical application, which brings the truth to bear on the conscience of the hearer.[78]

Lecture 12: Sources of the Argument

Arguments, as Vinet states, can be arguments from experience, arguments from testimony and arguments from reasoning.[79] In every one of these there is a resort to reasoning, and they recur as closely as possible to the primary sources of conviction, self-consciousness and intuitions. In all of them rely mainly on the testimony of the Word.[80]

Lecture 13: Rules of Argument

Sermons should ever be rich in Scripture. The testimony of the Word should be cited with a certain boldness and authority expressive of the preacher’s confidence, not in himself, but in God, who there speaks.[81] Proof texts for the argument should be applicable.[82] All reasoning should recur as closely as possible to the original sources of conviction in self-consciousness and intuitions.[83] If one must be deductive, let the steps be few in number.[84] A caution must be made about arguing using illustrations. Dabney says, “A brief caution, I trust, will be enough to remind you that mere illustration is not argument, and that he who substitutes the one for the other is a dishonest logician.”[85] Illustration can be a potent aid to the preacher if used correctly. This is not storytelling, but illustrating.

Lecture 14: Rules of Argument Continued

Arguments should follow one another in a natural progressive order.[86] In arguments given, the preacher should see his arguments as unanswerable to the subject matter.[87] The preacher must consider what parts of the sermon might be considered objectionable, and deal with those objections is sound arguments.[88] Time must never we wasted on trivial matters or arguments.[89] Anything opposed should be treated fairly.[90]

Lecture 15: Division of the Argument

An orderly arrangement of parts implies the preacher must be discriminatory in his order.[91] Divisions to the text usually fall into three areas, Scholastic, Textural or Topical.[92] When the preacher takes a scholastic approach (which was dawned in the university during the middle ages), he is bound to a logical order that overdoes the sermon in its intricacy. As an example, take Eph. 2:8, “For by grace are ye saved.” The proposition deduced must be this, “Salvation is gratuitous.” But the Scholastic will first discuss the question, What is salvation? The second, the notion of gratuity as predicated of God’s salvation, and the third, the affirmation. Now, if one desired really to preach the proposition of the text (which is the text) the first and second heads should have been dispatched in the explication, and the assertion of the copula should have occupied all the argument, its heads consisting of the several evidences which demonstrate the free grace of redemption. This is too cumbersome for the sermon.[93] The Textual Division is simple, scriptural and beautiful in that class of texts and passages to which it fairly applies. It simply makes the distribution of the matter of discussion as the phrases or commas of the text stand in the Scriptures, changing nothing except perhaps the order of the clauses among themselves.[94] This is the hallmark of Reformation and Puritan preaching.[95]

Divisions in the sermon should not be numerous.[96] Reasons for all propositions should govern the main point overall.[97] All heads in the outline of the sermon should coordinate the same main subject.[98] All parts must be ranked in order to build the sermon.[99] One should not pre-announce all the divisions. Philip Doddridge’s rule is that their masters do not pre-announce any heads of discourse.[100]

Lecture 16: Persuasion

Rhetoric is called the art of persuasion because in our study the preacher must be persuasive.[101] The propagation of suitable emotions is, then, lawful for the preacher.[102] The disadvantage the preacher has is that man is fallen, and he must be skilled in bringing man into a right understanding of his subject matter, but can only accomplish this through the power of the Spirit. Dabney says, “Hence I draw these rules: that the purpose of persuading should not be pre-announced. Let the work be done, and not advertised. And that it is useless to urge right feeling by mere hortation. Let the preacher present, instead, those truths which are the objects of moral emotion.”[103]

Lecture 17: Persuasion

The phenomenon of instinctive sympathy is the orator’s right arm in the work of persuasion. To sympathize is to be affected with our fellow-man, and because we see him affected.[104] This emotion, though, must be genuine[105] and not fabricated as the TV preachers (false preachers) would exemplify. Warmth in preaching demonstrates and persuades with apprehensions of sacred truth.[106]

Lecture 18: The Preacher’s Character with Hearers

Dabney says, “The hearers’ apprehension of their minister’s character is a most important element in his power of persuasion.”[107] The preacher’s competent knowledge and good judgment must be such a soundness of mind as will command the respect of all men, with a real mastery of the theology of redemption. A frivolous, weak, illogical mind will detract from the weight of all that you could say for religious truth.[108] This will include a spotless honesty and fidelity in all earthly relations and transactions, “A bishop must be blameless.”[109] He must also have an ardent love for souls. The pastor should be recognized as one who affectionately hungers for the spiritual good of his charge.[110] How will they listen to him if they consider him weak and illogical, without care for their souls?

Lecture 19: Style

Elocution is derived from the word stylus, or pen, which denotes the right use of words as vehicles of thought.[111] Elocution strives to be elegant with grammatical purity (i.e. syntactical correctness) use of language.[112] In order to secure this, one must have clearness of thought.[113] There must be a hearty energy, elegance, and rhythm.[114] Slow eurythmic speech is boring and dull, non-elegant words become rough to the ear. This means that in considering a sermon, one may write and rewrite the composition before it is preached. The aim is to have the sermon in such a mode as to be able to use it even for the future, since doctrine and true biblical teaching never fade.[115] (A side note, to gain a better style, the preacher must expose himself to great orators and preachers.[116])

Lecture 20: Style Continued

The style of the pulpit must surpass other orators in seriousness and gravity.[117] Dabney says, “The moral, spiritual and divine truths which exclusively occupy the preacher, the sacredness of his professed motive, and the momentous stake which his hearers have in the transaction, — all show that levity of thought or manner would here be an odious fault.”[118] The preacher should remain Scriptural,[119] and simple.[120] Dabney states, “He professes to stand between the living and the dead. He deals with the attributes of a jealous and majestic God, the destiny of souls to immortal bliss or woe, the tomb, the resurrection trump, the judgment-bar, the righteous Judge, the glories of heaven and the gloom of hell, the gospel’s cheering sound, the sacred tears of Gethsemane, the blood of Calvary and the sweet yet awful breathings of the Holy Ghost. The preacher’s mission is to lay hold of perishing men, and by the love of the Redeemer drag them from the pit.”[121]

Lecture 21: Action

Action is the function of the body used in preaching.[122] There is utterance and gesture. Speech addresses the ear and gesture addresses the eyes.[123] Natural tones ought to be considered in speaking, as one notices well-bred people and the manner they speak.[124] Speech, like the piece of music, has its dominant key-note, from which the voice ascends or descends along the scale, and to which it returns. There is pitch in speaking.[125] It holds a certain loudness in it and must be used as an instrument,[126] with a pure tone.[127]

Lecture 22: Action Continued

How important right emphasis is to the point and perspicuity of your utterance? Dabney says that the preacher must, “comprehend the means of acquiring that flexibility of utterance which is so great a grace.” This, then, gives way to gesture, which is carrying the outer man in speaking.[128] Gesture should be used rightly, not overdone, and not in theatrics. It is solely engaged for emphasis and should be considered sparingly.

Lecture 23: Modes of Preparation

The last subject of discussion touching the sermon is the mode of preparation. Three modes are recognized as allowable — writing, writing and memorizing, and extemporizing.[129] The use of the written sermon in the pulpit has given us many respectable and some powerful preachers. These write, with the greatest possible care and with rhetorical structure, a manuscript having two-thirds the length of the intended sermon.[130] The second method is that of writing a discourse and committing it to memory verbatim, to be recited in the pulpit. I should object to this way that the structure and style would seldom be truly rhetorical.[131] But this is not the delivery of a sermon without premeditation, except for in extraordinary emergencies. The extempore sermon is least of all impromptu. I mean by it a discourse in which the thought has been perfectly prearranged, but the words, except in cardinal propositions, are left to the free suggestions of the moment.[132]

Lecture 24: Public Prayer

The Papist says, “I go to mass;” the Protestant says, “I go to preaching.” Preaching not only involves the sermon, but it involves the public ministry of prayer. The minister must be as bound to prepare for prayer as he is for preaching.[133] When prayer before or after a sermon, or in the public prayer meeting by the minister goes poorly, the many blemishes which we hear in public prayers are to be traced to two sources: first, deficient piety, and, second, deficient preparation.[134] Does God take pleasure in bad grammar? Dabney says, “He has spoken to us in good Greek, thereby showing us that he expects us to address him in good English.”[135] The grace of prayer is to be secured only by a life of personal and private devotion.[136] Since it is God to whom you speak, and not man, your prayers should not be didactic.[137] But the minister should be using the language of Scripture in his prayers.[138]

[1] Dabney, RL, Evangelical Eloquence, (Carlisle, PA: Banner of Truth Trust, 1999) 5. Banner of Truth changed the 1979 title Sacred Rhetoric to their current title.

[2] Page 15.

[3] Page 18.

[4] Page 20.

[5] Page 21.

[6] Page 22.

[7] 2 Chron. 15:3.

[8] Page 23.

[9] Ibid, see Nehemiah 8:1-8.

[10] Page 24.

[11] Ibid.

[12] Page 25.

[13] Page 26.

[14] Page 27.

[15] Page 31.

[16] Ibid.

[17] Page 33.

[18] Page 34.

[19] Page 36.

[20] Ibid.

[21] Page 37.

[22] Page 41.

[23] Page 43.

[24] Page 45.

[25] Page 49.

[26] Ibid.

[27] Page 50.

[28] Ibid.

[29] Page 53.

[30] Ibid.

[31] Pages 53-54.

[32] Page 55.

[33] Page 57.

[34] Page 64.

[35] Page 65.

[36] Ibid.

[37] Page 67.

[38] Page 68.

[39] Page 72.

[40] Page 73.

[41] Page 75.

[42] Page 76.

[43] Page 77.

[44] Page 79.

[45] Ibid.

[46] Page 80.

[47] Page 82.

[48] Page 87.

[49] Page 89.

[50] Page 93.

[51] Page 94.

[52] Ibid.

[53] Page 97.

[54] Pages 99-100.

[55] Page 102.

[56] Page 105.

[57] Page 108.

[58] Page 113. Dabney calls this the “terminus.”

[59] Page 114.

[60] Page 115.

[61] Page 116.

[62] Page 121.

[63] Page 123.

[64] Page 127.

[65] Page 128.

[66] Page 129.

[67] Ibid.

[68] Page 131.

[69] Page 133.

[70] Page 139.

[71] Page 145.

[72] Pages 146-147.

[73] Page 161.

[74] Page 164.

[75] Page 166.

[76] Page 168.

[77] Page 172.

[78] Page 174.

[79] Page 181, footnote.

[80] Page 190.

[81] Page 191.

[82] Page 192.

[83] Page 193.

[84] Page 195.

[85] Page 197.

[86] Page 205.

[87] Page 207.

[88] Page 209.

[89] Page 210.

[90] Page 211.

[91] Page 214.

[92] Page 216.

[93] Page 217.

[94] Page 217.

[95] Derek Thomas’ contribution in “Feed my Sheep” confuses scholastic preaching with puritan preaching.

[96] Page 218.

[97] Page 222.

[98] Page 223.

[99] Page 225.

[100] De Orat. Book 2.

[101] Page 233.

[102] Page 237.

[103] Page 242.

[104] Page 247.

[105] Page 248.

[106] Page 251.

[107] Page 260.

[108] Page 264.

[109] Page 266.

[110] Ibid.

[111] Page 271.

[112] Page 272.

[113] Ibid.

[114] Page 279.

[115] Page 282. Dabney says, “Nothing has caused more embarrassment to young speakers than the unfortunate notion that public speaking must be generically different from talking,” (Page 283).

[116] Page 285.

[117] Page 288.

[118] Ibid.

[119] Page 289.

[120] Page 291.

[121] Page 296.

[122] Page 303.

[123] Page 304.

[124] Page 306.

[125] Page 309.

[126] Page 312.

[127] Page 314.

[128] Page 321.

[129] Page 328.

[130] Page 329.

[131] Page 331.

[132] Page 332. See Dabney on page 336 where he says, “The main obstacle you have to overcome, young gentlemen, in order to speak extempore, is redundancy and intricacy. The danger of becoming confused, and totally losing the thread, is one which can always be overcome by diligence in preparation and by use.”

[133] Page 346.

[134] Page 347.

[135] Page 348.

[136] Page 352.

[137] Page 355.

[138] Page 358.

Bible Verse:

"...pray without ceasing," (1 Thess. 5:17).

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