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Puritan Memoirs - Mr. Henry Burton

Puritan Memoirs - The Life and Death of Some Reformed Ministers

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The life and death of Mr. Henry Burton.

THIS very extraordinary sufferer, in the cause of nonconformity, was born at Birdsall in Yorkshire, 1579, and educated at Cambridge. His first employment, after leaving the university, was that of tutor to the sons of lord Carey, at Leppington. He was afterwards clerk of the closet to prince Henry; and after his death, to prince Charles, whom he was appointed to accompany in his visit to the court of Spain; but, for reasons unknown, he was set aside, even after some of his traveling equipage had been put on board for the voyage. On the accession of Charles to the throne, Burton expected to have been continued in his office. Here, however, he was disappointed, and his place bestowed on Neile, bishop of Durham. Burton was highly offended at being thus supplanted; and, in April 1623, presented a letter to king Charles, remonstrating against Neile and Laud, his majesty’s constant attendants, as being strongly inclined to popery; which was certainly, lamentably true. Nevertheless, Burton’s remonstrance was considered as the malevolent effects of disappointed hopes by his enemies; while he, on the other hand, charges the bishop with supplanting him by hypocrisy and envy. “But (says he) it was thus happily ordered by the good providence of God, who would not suffer me to rise at court, lest I should have been corrupted by its preferments.” Mr. Burton, being a man who feared no antagonist, when cited before Laud, treated him more like a schoolboy than a learned bishop. He was convened before the high commission for his book, entitled, Babel no Bethelt Harsnet, archbishop of York, railed himself out of breath against it and its author. But Burton confounded him with the sharpness of his reply. Becoming more and more disgusted with the increasing usurpations, and tyrannical government of the prelates, and their attempts to restore the antichristian superstitions of Rome, he purposely preached, from the second chapter of the Epistle to the Colossians, and fearlessly attacked the ceremonies of the church, denouncing all will-worship, and every species of human invention in the service of God. “I began (says he) to fall off from the ceremonies by degrees, watching for an opportunity to try it out, either by dint of argument, or by law; and, in case of failing in these, I had resolved to appeal to the king and his council, determined either to foil my adversaries, though I had but small hopes of this, or at least to discover the mystery of iniquity and hypocrisy, which, like a veil of piety, they bad hung over their tyrannical proceedings. I saw, with row, how they were daily gaining ground on the hearts of the credulous and simple, by their subtle pretensions that all their measures were for the protection of the protestant religion, while they were laboring to undermine and overturn it, and while the withered whore of Babylon, who at first made her appearance in a protestant garb, began to show her painted face in all the superstitious services of the altar. Not satisfied with the mere introduction of popery, their endeavors were also directed to the overthrow of the good laws and liberties of the nation, and the introduction of arbitrary and despotic government,” How truly Mr. Burton has characterized the leading ecclesiastics of that period, the History of England will sufficiently attest.

But Mr. Burton, in proportion to the boldness and truth of his strictures on the measures adopted by the prelates, felt the weight of their implacable resentment, but especially that of bishop Laud. In 1626 he was convened before the high commission; but, on this occasion, the judges interposed, and granted a prohibition; in consequence of which, he, for this time, escaped from the fangs of these devouring beasts of prey. Having published a book, entitled, The Baiting of the Pope’s Bull, or the Unmasking of the Mystery of Iniquity, folded up in a most pernicious Bull, lately arrived from Rome, with the design of causing a rent in England, by which his holiness might reenter. Notwithstanding that this book was wholly directed against the pope, and licensed by Dr. Goad, Mr. Burton, the author, was cited before the council, by the instigation of Laud, who spoke with vehemence against it, and denounced it a libel. After this Burton published another book, entitled, The Pouring out of the Seven Vials; for which this bloody prelate had hinj prosecuted in the high commission, and had the book suppressed; and when he published his book, entitled, Babel HO Bethel, which was also wholly directed against the church of Rome, bishop Laud ordered his pursuivant to apprehend and commit him to the Fleet; where, contrary to the petition of rights, he refused bail when offered, suspended him from his benefice, and suppressed the publication; notwithstanding that one Chowney, who had published a defense of popery, and, in place of being punished, was not even questioned respecting the publication; which, instead of being suppressed, he was permitted to dedicate to Laud, who favored it with his prelatical patronage. Such was the conduct of this protestant bishop, who pretended be a pillar of the reformation from popery! The puritans, however, were not ignorant of his devices. Mr. Burton, about the same time, also published his Trial of Private Devotions, and his Refutation of divers Arminian and Popish Errors, which had been broached by Montague, in his Appetto Caesar em; which were both called in, and suppressed by the severity of this papistical intolerant.

How long Mr. Burton remained in the Fleet, under the bishop’s suspension, we are unable to state. He was afterwards set at liberty; but this was only the commencement of his sufferings, a small earnest of what was yet in reserve for the trial of his patience and fortitude. For having preached two sermons at his own church, in Friday Street, on the 5th November 1636, from Prov. xxiv. 21, 22. “My son, fear thou the Lord and the king, and meddle not with them that are given to change,” etc.; in which discourses he exhibited, in their natural colors, the late innovations in doctrine, worship, and ceremonies, and warned his people against being tainted with their antichristian leaven. Dr. Laud, now the archbishop of Canterbury, being apprised of the nature of these sermons, caused articles to be exhibited against Mr. Burton in the high commission court, and summoned him to answer them, before Dr. Duck, without waiting till term time. Oh his appearance, he was charged with having spoken against turning communion tables into altars, against bowing to the altar, against setting up crucifixes, against saying the second service at the altar, and against prohibiting the afternoon sermon on the Lord’s day. In addition to these dreadful enormities, he was also charged with having said, that ministers could not preach the doctrines of free grace but at the risk of the severest censures; and that the ministers in Norfolk and Suffolk were suspended for their nonconformity to the rites and ceremonies, which bad been imposed upon them contrary to the laws of the land. These charges having been declared sedition by the court, Mr. Burton was required to answer, upon his oath, and so become his own accuser; which he positively refused, and appealed to the king. His appeal”, however, availed him nothing. In fifteen days after, he was summoned, by Laud’s authority, to appear before a special court of commission, where, in his absence, he was suspended from his office and benefice, and a warrant issued out for his apprehension. Thus oppressed on every side, Mr. Burton formed the bold resolution of shutting himself up in his house;’ and, in the meantime, that the impartial world might have an opportunity of deciding on the merits of the whole case, he published his two objected sermons against them. Mr. Burton prevailed upon Mr. Holt, a learned and aged bencher of Gray’s inn, to sign his answer; but the court ordered every thing deemed unfit to be brought into court to be expunged; accordingly, they struck out the whole answer, consisting of forty sheets of paper, with the exception of a few lines at the beginning, and a few more at the end; and because Mr. Burton would not acknowledge it in this mutilated form, they proceeded against him also pro confessio.

These three prisoners being brought to the bar, June 14th, 1637, they offered to defend their answers at the peril of their lives; but the court, finding they were not filed on the record, refused to admit them. They cried aloud for justice, and demanded, as freeborn Englishmen, that their answers should be read. This was peremptorily refused. After Prynne and Blastwick had been examined, the judges proceeded next to the case of Mr. Burton, as follows:

Lord Keeper, Mr. Burton, What say you?

Mr. Burton. My good lords, notwithstanding that we have labored to give your honors all possible satisfaction, it appears you are determined to censure us, and to take our cause pro confessio. What, my lords, have you to say against my book? I frankly acknowledge it is mine; I wrote it, but by no means with the intention of raising a commotion, cir stirring up sedition in the country, as charged against me.’ I have delivered nothing in these sermons but what arose from my text, which was chosen to suit the day on which it was delivered, being the 5th of November; and I stand here ready to vindicate every sentence delivered on that occasion.

L. K. Mr. Burton, I pray you do not stand upon naming texts of scripture at present; we did not send for you to preach, but to answer to those things that are objected against you.

B. I have drawn up my answer with much pains and considerable expense; which answer was signed by my counsel’s hand, and received into this court agreeable to the rule and order thereof; so that I had no reason to expect that I should be thus called to a censure, but to a legal proceeding by bill and answer.

L. K. Your answer was impertinent.

B. The matter is truly astonishing, my lord. My answer was legally entered in the court, and I should like to know on what ground it was thrown out, and by what authority my defense against groundless charges, maliciously brought against me, was thus unjustly set aside. It was first approved, Why was it afterwards pronounced impertinent? And, being approved of, it was received into the court—Why was it afterwards rejected? Justice requires that I should be apprised of the cause of such preposterous procedure.

Lord Finch. The judges did you a good turn to make it impertinent, for your answer was as libelous as your book.

L. K. What say you, Mr. Burton? Are you guilty or not?

B. My lord, I desire you to peruse the whole of my book, not a passage here and there, but throughout.

L. K. Time is short, Mr. Burton. Are you guilty, or not guilty? What say you to that which has been read? Does it become a minister to deliver himself in such a railing and scandalous manner?

B. It is highly becoming a minister of Christ to deliver the truths of his holy word. It is highly becoming a watchman to blow the trumpet of alarm when he sees the enemy approaching; and it well becomes the physician to prescribe bitter potions to his patient when mild ones are found utterly inefficient. Spiritually considered, a minister is the instructor, the watchman, and physician of his flock, and responsible for the faithful discharge of his duty in these various capacities. If, therefore, my sermons correspond with the word of God, and the ministerial duties therein prescribed, as I humbly presume, and I am ready to prove they do—Then what censure becomes necessary? Surely none. * In these days of reviving superstition and increasing heresy, it were more becoming the dignitaries of the church to encourage the preachers of the gospel, than thus to harass and discourage them in the discharge of these important duties. With respect to my answer to your allegations, you have very unjustly blotted out every sentence that you considered available to my exculpation, and retained merely what you found less opposed to your tyrannical proceedings; and now you require me to relinquish all that bears against your intolerance, and recognise that alone which answers your own ends and purposes; but, be assured, my lord, before I will thus meanly desert either my cause or my conscience, I will sooner desert this mortal body of mine, and consign it to the arbitrary disposal of your lordships.

L. K. This is a place where you ought to crave mercy and favor, Mr. Burton, and not stand on such bold terms.

B. Wherein I have offended, in human frailty, I crave pardon, both of God and man; and I pray God, that in deciding on this case, you may so conduct yourselves as not to sin against your own souls.—Mr. Burton was proceeding farther to defend himself, when he was interrupted, and commanded to be silent; while the following horrible sentence was pronounced against him and his injured associates:

“That Burton shall be deprived of his ecclesiastical benefice, degraded from his ministerial functions and degrees in the university, as Prynne and Bastwick have been from their degrees of law and physic. They shall be fined each Jive thousand pounds. They shall stand in the pillory at Westminster, and have their ears cut off; and because Prynne has already lost his ears, by sentence of the court in 1633, the remainder of the stumps shall be cut off, and he shall be stigmatized on both his cheeks with the letters S. L. for a Seditious Libeller; and they shall suffer perpetual imprisonment in three of the remotest prisons of the kingdom, namely, in Caernarvon, Cornwall, and Lancaster castles.”

Prior to the execution of this barbarous sentence, Burton’s parishioners presented a petition to the king, subscribed by a great number of respectable individuals, earnestly entreating his majesty to pardon and liberate their beloved minister. It was presented by two of their number, who were instantly imprisoned for their officiousness. The sentence of court was executed on these three men on the 30th June, with evident marks of unfeeling brutality. The hangman, sawing off the remainder of Prynne’s ears, rather than cutting them. The sufferers belonged to the three most reputable professions; and their characters, in their several faculties, were none of the meanest; yet have they been traduced, and meanly insulted by some bigoted historians, with the unworthy epithets of fellows, pillorymen, stigmatized scoundrels, 6/c. These victims of Prelatical vengeance had, nevertheless, the pleasure of living to see, that the cruel inflictions of their enemies procured them more honor than falls to the share of the boasted insignia of the star and garter. These honorable scars, obtained in defending the noble cause of religious liberty, pointed them out to the admiration of mankind, as heroes of the most inflexible integrity and unperishable renown; while their enemies, and merciless persecutors, have exposed themselves to the unqualified reprobation of every person of ordinary sensibility.

On passing this unchristian sentence, archbishop Laud made a long and labored speech, with the design of vindicating himself from the charge of innovation, with which he was universally branded by the puritans. In this speech, which was addressed to the lords constituting the court, he says, “I can clearly and truly aver, as in the presence of God, that I have done nothing as a prelate, but with a single heart, and with a sincere intention for the good government and honor of the church, and also for the maintenance of the orthodox truth and religion of Christ, professed, established, and maintained in this church of England.” Here the reader will judge for himself how far the declaration and the practice of this unmerciful and domineering churchman are consistent with one another, and whether the archbishop has not added to his relentless cruelty the most shameful hypocrisy. “I heartily thank you all (continues he) for your just and honorable censure upon these men, and your unanimous dislike to them.” These suffering individuals were charged with writing seditious libels, although their writings are wholly directed against popery, and the prelatical leaders, who were aiming at its restoration; which renders themselves the only seditious persons concerned in the affair; and therefore to pronounce a sentence so disproportioned to the supposed offence against others, while they alone were the transgressors, stands a lasting disgrace on their characters, as ministers of Christ, and even as men.

On the morning appointed for executing this terrible sentence, Mr. Burton, being brought to Westminster, and beholding the pillory erected in palace yard, he said, “My wedding day was not half so welcome to me as this. What makes it more peculiarly joyful, is the cheering thought that the Captain of my salvation has led the way. He gave his back to the smiters, and his cheeks to them that plucked off the hair; nor hid himself from shame and spitting. The Lord God will help me, therefore shall I not be confounded. If Christ was not ashamed of a cross for me, shall I be ashamed of a pillory for him—Never!” Being fastened in the pillory, he addressed the immense crowd of spectators to the following import: “Men of England, I am brought here for a spectacle to men and angels, and notwithstanding that I am doomed thus to suffer the punishment of a rogue, yet, unless it be a faithful service to Christ, and a loyal subjection to the king, that constitutes a rogue, I am clear from the malevolent charge. If, however, to be Christ’s faithful servant, and the king’s loyal subject, deserve such punishment as this, I glory in it, and bless God that I have a clear and approving conscience. I rejoice that he hath accounted me worthy of these sufferings; and in his loving-kindness, and tender mercy, has filled my soul with comfort and great consolation.” With a grave and cheerful countenance he added, “I have never been in such a pulpit before; but who knows what fruit God is able to produce from this dry tree. Through these holes (meaning the pillory) God can give light to his church. The conscientious discharge of my ministerial duty, in admonishing my people against the creeping in of popery, and in exhorting them to a dutiful obedience to God and the king, constitutes the crime for which I now suffer. The truths which I have preached, however, I am ready to seal with my blood; and this is my crown of rejoicing here, and shall be hereafter.” When taken from the pillory, he was again brought on the scaffold, where the executioner cut off his ears in a very coarse and barbarous manner. They were paired so close, that, the temporal artery being cut, the blood gushed in torrents from the wounds; the sight of which awakened the sensibility, as well as the indignation and the cries of an immense crowd of spectators. While his blood was thus streaming in every direction, Mr. Burton manifested the greatest coolness and composure, saying, “Blessed be God, it is well; be content, my soul, and suffer all with patience. Pain is the harbinger of pleasure; and sorrow, like the night, precedes the joys of morning; all shall yet be well.” Mr. Prynne and Dr. Bastwick had this bloody part of their sentences executed at the same time and place. The day preceding this execution, it was decreed, in the starchamber, that Henry Burton shall be carried to Lancaster castle, William Prynne to Carnarvon castle, and John Bastwick to Launceston castle, and there suffer perpetual imprisonment, without being allowed any use of pen, ink, or paper, or any other book but the bible, the book of common prayer, and certain other books of devotion agreeable to the form of the church of England; and that no person have access to them. In consequence of this order, Dr. Bastwick was taken from the Gatehouse on the 26th July; the day following Mr. Prynne was taken from the Tower; and, on the next day, Mr. Burton from the Fleet—and, with their sores not yet cured, conveyed to their several places of confinement. As they passed out of the city, vast multitudes of people came forth to witness their departure, and take their last and sorrowful farewell. As Mr. Burton passed from Smithfield to Brown’s hill, a little beyond Highgate, it was calculated that not less than one hundred thousand persons were collected to witness his departure. His wife, attending him in a carriage, had great sums of money thrown to her as she passed along. But the liberty given to Burton and his fellowsufferers to speak in the pillory, and the affection and compassion manifested by the populace, were extremely mortifying to the revengeful spirit of the malicious Laud; as appears from his letter to Wentworth, dated August 28th, 1637. “What say you to it (says the angry prelate), that Prynne and his fellows should be suffered to talk whatever they pleased while standing in the pillory, and win acclamations from the people, and have notes taken of their speeches,’ and these notes circulated in written copies about the city; besides, when departing to their several imprisonments, that thousands were suffered to be upon the way to take their leave, and God knows what else. And I hear that Prynne was very much welcomed, both at Coventry and West Chester, as be passed to Carnarvon.” The tyrannical archbishop, not satisfied with the severities already inflicted and decreed to these unhappy sufferers, while they were yet on the way to their prisons, procured a fresh order, which he sent after them, containing a more rigorous imprisonment than the former; with a clause, however, in favor of the prisoners, namely, that his majesty will give allowance for their diet; which clause was overruled by the influence of these pious prelates, so that none of the prisoners ever received a penny of the royal allowance; and had not their friends, and even their keepers, been more humane than their lordships, they had starved in their cells. But numbers of generous and sympathizing individuals having resorted to the places of their confinement, the relentless archbishop, that he might add affliction to their bonds, and preclude all possibility of their receiving comfort or relief from their wives or other relatives, procured yet another order; by virtue of which they were banished to the islands of Guernsey, Jersey, and Scilly, there to be kept in close and perpetual imprisonment. Burton was accordingly removed from Lancaster castle to castle Cornet, in the island of Guernsey, where he arrived on the 15th December 1637. He was shut up in a low narrow dark room, and almost suffocated for want of air, and no person permitted to see or speak with him. Dr. Bastvvick was likewise removed to the castle in the island of Scilly, and Prynne to the castle of Montorguill, in the island of Jersey, and made close prisoners. Independent of all the numerous acts of tyranny, and unrelenting cruelty, exercised by this prelate, his cool, deliberate, persevering, and implacable vengeance, and the ingenuity by which it was exercised against these three respectable gentlemen, seems to demonstrate that he possessed the malignity of a devil, but wanted the feelings of a man. He not only rejoiced over his victims, but grudged them even the pity and sympathising commiseration of their friends and neighbours. To find a more hateful character, all things considered, would be a task of uncommon difficulty. The annals of the Spanish Inquisition cannot produce his superior, nor those of the veriest barbarians his equal; so that his memory must, of necessity, be associated with perpetual execration.

These three prisoners remained in the foresaid remote islands till the year 1640. During this period Mr. s Bastwick and Mr. s Burton had often petitioned his majesty and the lords of council for liberty to visit them, or to live on the islands, or even to be close confined along with them; but, by the influence of Laud, their petitions were always rejected. Though Laud could never be prevailed upon to forgive these men, the holy tyrant said, “He humbly besought God to forgive them!” Mr. Prynne, however, obtained some small mitigation of his afflictions, in consequence of a petition presented to the king by Sir Thomas Jermin, the governor of Jersey. He was therefore allowed to attend divine service, and walk in the garden along with his keeper; but the implacable Laud, on hearing of this royal indulgence, was enraged even to madness; and sending for Hungerford, who had been the means of procuring it, had him convened before the council.

This same year, 1640, inconsequence of a petition from Mrs. Burton and Mrs. Bastwick, the prisoners were called home by an order of parliament, that the complaints of the petitioners might be investigated. Agreeable to the order of the house they returned. Burton and Prynne arrived at Dartmouth in the same vessel, on the 22d November, where they were received and entertained with every demonstration of enthusiastic regard. On their journey they were attended with a prodigious concourse of people, and not only treated with great magnificence, but had liberal presents bestowed on them. The inhabitants of every town, through which they passed, came out in multitudes to meet them, and rent the air with acclamations of joy, attending them till met by the inhabitants of the next town. As they approached the metropolis, the inhabitants came forth to meet them, and congratulate them on their safe return, in astonishing multitudes. The road betwixt Brentford and London was so choked up with coaches, horses, and pedestrians, that they could, with great difficulty, advance one mile in the hour. On entering London, the streets were wedged up with such an amazing conflux of the people, that they were almost three hours in passing from Charingcross to their lodgings within Templebar. The populace carried lighted torches before them, strewed the way with flowers, put rosemary and bays in their hats, and, as they went along, with joyful acclamations, shouted; Welcome home! Welcome home!! On the 30th Nov. being two days after their arrival in London, Burton appeared before the house of commons, and, on the fifth of the same month, presented his petition, entitled, “The Humble Petition of Henry Burton, late exile, and close prisoner in Castle Cornet, in the island of Jersey.” In this petition he enumerates the merciless sufferings to which he was subjected, and concludes by recommending his case to the impartial consideration of the house. On the presentation of this petition, together with numbers of similar import, a committee was appointed to investigate and decide upon their authenticity, and to report. Accordingly, on the 12th March following, Mr. Rigby delivered the report of the committee; upon which the house passed the following resolutions: “That the four commissioners, Dick, Worrel, Sams, and Wood, proceeded unjustly and illegally when they suspended Mr. Burton from his office and benefice for not appearing on the summons of the first process: That the breaking up of Mr. Burton’s house, and arresting his person without any cause shewed, and before any suit depended in the starchamber against him, and his close imprisonment thereupon, are against the law and the liberty of the subject: That John Wragg hath offended, in searching the books and papers of Mr. Burton, under color of a general warrant dormant from the high commissioners; and that the warrant is against the law and the liberty of the subject: That Sergeant Dandy and Alderman Abel have offended in breaking up the house of Mr. Burton, and ought to make reparation respectively for the same: That Mr. Burton ought to have reparation and recompense for the damages sustained for the foresaid proceedings of Mr. Dick and others, who suspended him from his office and benefice: That the warrant from the council board, dated Whitehall, February 2d, 1637, for committing Mr. Burton close prisoner, and the commitment thereupon, is illegal and contrary to the liberty of the subject: That the archbishop of Canterbury, the bishop of London, the earl of Arundel and Surrey, the earl of Pembroke and Montgomery, Sir H. Vane, Sir J. Coke, Sir Francis Windebank, do make reparations to Mr. Burton for the damages sustained by this imprisonment.” On the 24th of the same mouth, Mr. Burton’s case was again brought before the house, when it was farther resolved, “That the sentence in the starchamber is illegal, and without any just ground, and ought to be reversed; and that he ought to be freed from the fine of five thousand pounds, and the imprisonment imposed upon him by said sentence, and he restored to his degrees in the university, orders in the ministry, and to his ecclesiastical benefice in Friday Street, London: That the order of the council board, for transferring Mr. Burton from Lancaster to the island of Guernsey, and his imprisonment there, are against the law and the liberty of the subject, and therefore that the said Mr. Burton ought to have reparation and recompense for the damages thereby sustained, the loss of his ears, and his other sufferings.” On the 20th April, the house of commons voted, that Mr. Burton should receive six thousand pounds for the damages he had sustained; but the confusion of the times prevented him from receiving the money. On the 8th of June following, by an order of the house, he was restored to his former ministry and benefice in Friday Street. Bastwick and Mr. Prynne had similar resolutions passed in their favor.

On Mr. Burton’s restoration, he formed a church after the model of the Independents; and it appears he had greatly prospered in his ministry. He is said to have been a severe disciplinarian, who prohibited all immoral characters from communicating; but toward the close of his life, he became more moderate. He died in January 1647, aged sixty-eight years.

Most of our historians, of high church principles, have not ceased to calumniate the labors, and deride the sufferings, of this zealous and determined puritan divine. Some of them have not been ashamed to assert, that the merciless and inhuman inflictions, and cruel imprisonments, that he and his fellow sufferers received, were both just and necessary; but the general feelings of sorrow and regret at their departure from London, and the triumphant rejoicings of the people on their return from exile, as narrated above, show that their sufferings were considered both unjust and unnecessary by the great body of the people: That the indignity and severity of their sentence gave general offence, insomuch that they were no longer regarded as criminals, but as martyrs to the cause of truth and the liberty of conscience; while the sufferings of these, and an incredible number of other good and loyal subjects, all for their nonconformity to the useless and idolatrous ceremonies, pressed upon the consciences of men by the despotic power and bigotry of the Prelatical dignitaries, stands an imperishable monument of disgrace to the rulers of that period, both in church and state. Mr. Hume has labored to whitewash the character of Charles I. He extols him for sincerity, humanity, and almost every species of princely virtue; but his great talents have been thrown away on a subject where irreversible facts negative his assertions, and demonstrate, that the subject of his panegyric was neither a man of prudence nor a man of feeling. With regard to Laud (Whole length portraits of archbishop Laud and Mr. Burton were published in one print; in which the prelate is represented as vomiting up his own works, while Burton is holding his head. The print is extremely scarce and curious.—Granger’s Biog. Hist.), his character is any thing but what we are taught to expect from a minister of the Prince of Peace—proud and overbearing, cruel and vindictive. After influencing the court to pass a cruel and unmerited sentence on one of the ministers who had fearlessly and successfully opposed him in his career of cruelty, he took off his hat, and, in open court, thanked almighty God, who had given him satisfaction on his enemy. In forwarding the arbitrary measures of his Master, he trampled down every law, both human and divine; and his name will occupy a prominent place in the annals of cruelty, hypocrisy, and lordly oppression, to the end of time.

Mr. Burton’s works, in addition to those already mentioned, are, 1. Censure of Simony—2. Israel’s Fast—3. Truth’s Triumph over Trent—4. The Law and the Gospel Reconciled—5. The Christian’s Bulwark—6. Exceptions against Dr. Jackson’s Treatise of the Divine Essence and Attributes—7. Jesu Worship, or the bowing to the name of Jesus confuted—8. The Sounding of the Last Trumpets—9. The Protestation Protested—10. England’s Bondage, and her hopes of deliverance, a Sermon, preached before the Parliament—11. Narration of his own Life—12. A Vindication of Independent Churches—13. Parliament’s Power for making Laws in Religion—14. Truth shut out of doors—15. Truth still Truth, although shut out of doors—16. Conformity Deformity—17. Relation of Mr. Chilingworth.

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